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Chemical Journal of Kazakhstan

History

Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor M.I. Goryaev, one of the founders of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, first vice-president of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (1946-1955) and academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR was appointed the first director of the Institute in 1945-1946.

Under the leadership of Academic Scientist M.I. Goryaev, the institute launched fundamental research on the chemical composition of industrial and wild plants, in particular, santonin-bearing, alkaloid and essential oil crops, expanding the raw material base of the food, perfume, chemical-pharmaceutical and hydrolysis industry of the Republic.

During M. Goryaev period of work as the director of the Institute of Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR following laboratories were present in the structure of the Institute:

  • technologies of plant raw materials (head – MI Goryaev);
  • mineral fertilizers (head – AB Bekturov);
  • organic synthesis (head – I.N.Azerbayev);
  • oil (head – SR Rafikov);
  • physical chemistry (head – MI Usanovich);
  • organic catalysis (head – DV Sokolsky);
  • analytical chemistry (head – M.T. Kozlovsky).

Academic scientist M.I. Goryaev studied chemistry and technology of natural compounds and following scientific areas were researched:

  • phytochemical studies of the essential oils of the wild flora of Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Mongolia, industrial oils of Georgia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan;
  • research of fatty and naphthenic acids, synthesis of biologically and surface active elements on their basis;
  • the study of synthetic transformations of terpenoids, diterpenoids, phytosterols, saponino-steroids, alkaloids, prenenyl compounds, lactones derived from plant raw materials;
  • the study of microbiological methods of obtaining enzymes and the study of their physico-chemical properties;
  • development of enzyme engineering, aimed at creating biocatalysts with new useful properties for engineering;
  • chemical transformations of carbohydrates and polyatomic alcohols with natural and synthetic organic acids;
  • the study of the structural features and reactivity of the studied natural compounds, the correlation of the biological activity of the compounds from their structure, issuing recommendations for the practical use of research results;
  • development of new technological approaches, creation and introduction of methods for obtaining dietary fiber, keratin-containing protein from poultry waste.

Successful and fruitful scientific,  organizational and social activities of Academic scientist M.I. Goryaev was awarded the Order of “Lenin” (1967), Order of “October Revolution” (1974), “Red Banner of Labor” (1949), “Badge of Honor” (1945) and many medals and diplomas of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Republican Society “Knowledge”, ENEA (1978). He was awarded the honorary title of Honored Scientist of the Kazakh SSR (1946).

In order to perpetuate the memory of one of the founders of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Honored Scientist, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR Mikhail Ivanovich Goryaev, memorial plaques were set to the small conference hall of the Institute on the building of the Institute and on the house where the scientist lived and worked for many years. A street in the city of Almaty is also named after him.

The scientific staff of the Institute was mainly replenished with graduates of chemical faculties of the Kazakh State University named after. S.M. Kirov, Moscow and Leningrad State Universities, Moscow University of Chemical Technology named after D.I. Mendeleev, Kazan Institute of Chemical Technology and other leading universities of the USSR.

The role of the Dean of the Faculty of Chemistry (1953-1980), Head of the Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kazakh State University, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Honored Worker of Science of the Kazakh SSR, Doctor of Chemistry Ph.D. , Professor Batirbek Akhmetovich Beremzhanov is important in replenishing the Institute with highly qualified young graduates,.

From 1946 to 1968 The Institute was headed by Academic Scientist of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor A. B. Bekturov. After the end of the Great Patriotic War in 1945-1946, Abiken Bekturovich was actively involved in the great organizational work for the creation of the Republican Academy of Sciences and its institutions. Soon he became one of the founders of this organization and was elected its full member, and in 1946 he was appointed director of the Institute of Chemical Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. On this duty, Academician AB Bekturov worked until 1968, making an invaluable contribution to the development of chemical science in the republic. For many years he was a member of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the first academician-chairman of the Mineral Resources Division.

The range of scientific interests of A. B. Bekturov was extremely wide. According to the chronology of their formation and development, one can trace the development of inorganic chemistry proper in Kazakhstan. The main initiatives in the activities of the young academician coincide with the development of mineral resources of Kazakhstan. Scientist was especially interested in mineral salts, first of all, in the recently discovered unique phosphorites of Karatau, whose reserves are enormous. Unfortunately, due to the specificity of the structure, this valuable raw material was difficult to process into useful products using well-known technologies. This prompted A. B. Bekturov, his students and colleagues to urgently seek other possibilities. As a result, new special methods were developed, based on thermal and combined acid-thermal processes, which makes it possible to involve any kind of phosphate ores in production. Developing this direction, Abiken Bekturovich and his staff conducted extensive systematic research on the chemistry and technology of thermophosphates, fused and defluorinated phosphates, as well as newly explored polymeric phosphates. The advantage of the latter over conventional fertilizers is the high concentration of phosphorus, low retrogradation in the soil, and increased utilization of phosphorus by plants. As a result of these large-scale studies, an enormous amount of factual material on the chemistry of phosphorus and its compounds was obtained, a serious scientific basis was laid for new resource-saving technologies and new productions at the plants of the Karatau region.

For the development of new directions, the leading personnel of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR invited such famous scientists as S.R. Rafikov, M.I. Usanovich, V.V. Stender, D.V. Sokolsky, A.A. Glagolev, M.T. Kozlovsky and others. Next to these outstanding people, and under their direct influence, republican scientific cadres, who later headed new scientific directions grew up.

Academic Scientist A.B. Bekturov was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Kazakh SSR, he was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Order of October Revolution and the Badge of Honor, along with many other medals and diplomas. His name is included in the handbook of 1968 “Who is who in world science.”

 An expression of recognition by the scientific community of the fruitful activities of the great scientist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, A. B. Bekturov, who laid the foundations of chemical science in Kazakhstan, was assigned in 1991 to the Institute of Chemical Sciences of his name and the establishment of plaques on the facade of the building of the Institute and on the house where he lived. Streets in Almaty and Pavlodar are also named after him.

During the period of work as the director of the Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR Bekturov following laboratories were present in the structure of the Institute:

– Technologies of plant raw materials (Head: from 1945 to 1955 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR MI Goryaev);

– Analytical Chemistry (Heads: from 1945 to 1961 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, M.T. Kozlovsky; due to the fact that the main research area of ​​the laboratory was research in the field of theory and practice of amalgam and amalgam processes, in 1966 laboratory was renamed to laboratory of amalgam chemistry, from 1961 to 1969 – doctor of technical sciences L.F. Kozin);

– organic catalysis (head: from 1946 to 1969 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor D.V. Sokolsky);

– Physical Chemistry (Heads: from 1945 to 1949 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor M.I. Usanovich; from 1949 to 1985 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor T. N. Sumarokova);

– organic synthesis (heads: from 1945 to 1947 – corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, I.N. Azerbaev; from 1947 to 1955 – V. Chelintsev; from 1955 to 1981, doctor of chemical sciences, professor D.V. Sokolov);

– plant chemistry (head: from 1955 to 1981 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR M.I. Goryaev);

– chemistry of alkaloids (heads: from 1955 to 1958 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences M.I. Shabanov; from 1958 to 1960 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences D. R. Jalilov; from 1960 to 1968 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor G.A. Tolstikov);

– natural salts (head from 1956 to 1973. Candidate of Chemical Sciences A.I. Moon);

– molecular spectroscopy (head: from 1955 to 1972 – candidate of chemical sciences Yu.A. Kushnikov);

– hydrolysis of plant materials (Heads: from 1959 to 1980 – M.G. Pugachev; from 1980 to 1986 – G.Zh. Ibraev);

– microanalysis (Heads: from 1960 to 1961 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences M.K. Dzhamaletdinova; from 1961 to 1979 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences V.S. Bazalitskaya);

– natural sorbents and catalysts (Head: from 1961 to 1996 – Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Sh.B. Battalova);

– synthesis of herbicides (Head: from 1964 to 1973 – Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR I.N. Azerbaev);

– physical chemistry of oxide melts (Head: from 1965 to 1988 – L.N. Sheludyakov);

– chemistry of phosphate fertilizers (Head: from 1966 to 1972 – VV Tikhonov);

– inorganic synthesis (Head: from 1966 to 1984 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, A.B. Bekturov).

In 1957, the Department of Chemistry of High-Molecular Compounds was created under the direction of Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor S.R. Rafikov, which included the following laboratories:

– synthesis of semi-products of high-molecular compounds (head: from 1957 to 1996 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences, later Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR B.V. Suvorov);

– plastics (Heads: from 1956 to 1986 – V.G. Gutsalyuk; from 1986 to 1992. – I.A. Arkhipova);

– physical chemistry of polymers (head: from 1966 to 1996 – E.A. Bekturov);

– polymer synthesis (head: from 1968 to 2009 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, B.A. Zhubanov);

– ion exchange resins (Heads: from 1960 to 1966 – Candidate of Technical Sciences M.V. Vittich; from 1968 to the present – Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Ergozhin).

From the first years of the Institute’s existence, research topics covered various areas of basic and applied chemical science, and, first of all, the processing of mineral and natural resources of Kazakhstan into target products that have high national economic importance. For the first time, universal technologies for the processing of phosphorites of Kazakhstan for fertilizers, feed phosphates and inorganic multi-purpose materials have been created.

Studies of the chemical composition of the republic’s oils and the wild flora of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, the behavior of mercury and amalgam in electrochemical processes, new catalysts and their properties by electrochemical methods in catalytic processes, to create new biologically active substances of natural and synthetic origin have been launched, and the theories of acids and bases were developed.

Chemistry of high-molecular compounds, petrochemistry and petrochemical synthesis, industrial catalysis in Kazakhstan was substantiated and developed by corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.R. Rafikov. In 1947, he was invited by the first President of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, K.I. Satpayev to move from Moscow to Almaty and began training scientific personnel in the field of chemistry. In 1958, the Department of Polymer Chemistry was established at the Institute of Chemical Sciences, which included S.R. Rafikov’s laboratory of petroleum chemistry, synthesis of high-molecular compounds semi-products, synthesis of polymers, plastics, ion exchange resins, physicochemistry of polymers, chemistry of polymerization processes, physical and mechanical studies. In 1957, the Department of Plastics was organized at the Kazakh Institute of Chemical Technology with his participation. Under the leadership of the dean of the chemistry department of the Kazakh State University named after S.M. Kirov (hereinafter – KazSU), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Professor B.A. Beremzhanov, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.R. Rafikova and Ph.D. B.A. in 1963, the Department of Chemistry of Macromolecular Compounds was organized at KazSU.

In 1954-1955 a group of employees led by S.R. Rafikov’s Laboratory of Petroleum Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, which was headed by B.V. Suvorov, during the study of the mechanism of the reaction of the vapor-phase catalytic oxidation of p-xylene with atmospheric oxygen in terephthalic acid, found that the addition of gaseous ammonia to the reaction mixture radically changes the direction of the process and allows to obtain dinitrile with high yield instead of terephthalic acid. New chemical reaction, discovered by S.R. Rafikov and B.V. Suvorov, was called “oxidative ammonolysis”. In 1957, while developing this work, B.V. Suvorov with the support of S.R. Rafikov organized a laboratory for the synthesis of high-molecular-weight semi-products. In the course of further research, he showed that the general regularities of the process, established on the example of alkyl benzenes, are identical to other classes of organic substances, in particular, aliphatic, hydroaromatic and heterocyclic compounds. He summarized results of long-term studies of the oxidative ammonolysis reaction summarized in his Ph.D dissertation, “Investigation of vapor-phase catalytic oxidation and oxidative ammonolysis of alkyl benzenes,” which he defended in 1962 at the Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov. Subsequently, two lines of research into the reaction of oxidative ammonolysis have been developed in the IHN. One of the sections was a continuation of the initial development of oxidative ammonolysis of alkyl benzenes and was later significantly expanded to include polycyclic compounds as well as a large number of benzene derivatives with heteroatomic substituents.

The second major section of research included the study of the oxidative ammonolysis of pyridine derivatives. For many years, a special place was occupied by the creation of cost-effective methods for the production of nicotinic acid (PP vitamin), which is widely used in medicine and agriculture. Together with the Botanical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a group of new growth stimulants was created under the name “Nikazan”, tested on 10,000 hectares of sugar beet crops and recommended for practical use in crop production.

The natural result of the work, started by S.R. Rafikov and B.V. Suvorov’s research in the field of oxidative ammonolysis, was the creation of multicomponent catalysts for the oxidative ammonolysis of alkylpyridines K2 and K4. Waste-free technology of their production and high efficiency of process interested the “Lonza” company  (Switzerland). As a result of intensive negotiations in the cities of Visp and Basel with the participation of the director of the Institute of Chemical Sciences named after AB. Bekturov, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Ergozhin, academician of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan B.V. Suvorov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan D.Kh. Sembayev and the managers of the “Lonza” company  a license agreement was signed (1993) for K2 catalyst. K4 catalyst turned out to be more efficient and provided the yield of target products of up to 92-98%, therefore, K4 catalyst is used in the industrial production of nicotinamide at a 3000-ton factory built in China. It is patented in 38 countries of the world. The patent owners are the Institute and the “Lonza” company.

In connection with the adoption of an extensive program for the development of the chemical industry and science, especially polymer materials in the USSR, a laboratory for the synthesis of polymers was established at the Institute of Chemical Sciences (1958). In this laboratory, Bulat Akhmetovich Zhubanov began research on the synthesis of new monomers and polyfunctional polymers with practically useful properties. The interaction of p- and m-xylylenediamines with various dicarboxylic acids with the formation of polyamides was studied. When studying the characteristics of their synthesis, it was found for the first time that during polyamidation, a side reaction of deamination of diamines occurs, resulting in the formation of polyamines. Completely new results on the mechanism of polyamidation processes were obtained in the study of the polycondensation kinetics in the melt. It was shown for the first time that an autocatalytic process takes place in the melt during polyamidation. B.A. Zhubanov with the staff of a two-step direct reaction of trimellitic anhydride laboratory with various diamines obtained a number of new polyamidoimides with a decomposition temperature of up to 400 ° C. New polyfunctional monomers and polymers based on diketoanethanhydrides resistant to 500 ° C have been developed. High-strength composite materials, such as glass-reinforced plastics, heat-shielding coatings, moldings, etc., resistant to thermal-oxidative degradation have been created by the method of reaction molding.

In the field of polymerization research connected with the radical polymerisation of vinyl monomers was developed. Systematic studies were conducted to study the kinetic regularities of the process depending on the nature of the monomers, the initiator, the sensitizer, the inhibitor, the medium, the concentration of the initiator and the monomer, and based on the data obtained, a mechanism of the reaction was proposed. Of particular importance are the results obtained in the polymerization of vinyl monomers in bulk with deep degrees of conversion. It is shown that the features of polymerization at deep degrees of conversion are associated not only with a change in the chain termination constant, but also other kinetic parameters, namely, the chain growth rate constant, initiation rate, and concentration of macroradicals. The necessity of taking into account the change in the rate of initiation even at relatively low degrees of conversion and the influence of the viscosity of the medium on it has been revealed. Ultimately, a method was developed to control radiation polymerization using a photochemical braking principle, which was new at the time in polymer chemistry. It has been established that by selecting the appropriate initiator a significant reduction in the “gel effect” can be achieved (SR R. Rafikov and G. P. Gladyshev).

Another method to control the polymerization process at deep degrees of conversion is the auto-regulation method based on the use of two-component initiating systems. A new version of a simple thermometric installation, designed to determine the activity of methyl methacrylate, is proposed. Theoretical data formed the basis of applied research, which resulted in the production technology of monolithic blocks of organic glass by photopolymerization. After conducting semi-industrial tests, in 1967, the introduction of the development of organic glass at the Chelyabinsk plant with great economic effect was carried out (SR Rafikov, G.P. Gladyshev, K.M. Gibov, G.V. Leplyanin, T.Ya. Smirnova, P.E. Messerle, V.A. Sechkovskaya, I.Ya. Sadchikov, V.P. Monakhov, etc.).

In order to perpetuate the memory of Honored Scientists, Academicians of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.R. Rafikov, B.V. Suvorov, Sh.B. Battalova and corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR I.N. Azerbaev memorial plaques were installed on the building of the Institute and on the houses where they lived and worked for many years. Streets were named in Almaty after these scientists. The large conference hall of the Institute is named after the corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.R. Rafikov.

In 1967, the Bashkir branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was organized and Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR S.R. Rafikov was appointed Chairman of the Presidium of the Bashkir Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Successfully heading the said Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR until 1984, Sagid Raufovich created new scientific fields and prepared highly qualified personnel in the fields of physics and mathematics, molecular biology and genetics, petrochemistry and chemistry of polymers, languages ​​and literature, ethnography and culture, history and regional economics. By the mid-70s, the Bashkir branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was practically equal to the average academic level in terms of equipment and the state of the library fund. During this period, more than 30 new laboratories were organized. Due to the reasonable coordination of scientific research, the academic science of the Bashkir branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was replenished with new efficiently operating scientific schools. In a short time, the branch has become one of the leading research centers in the country. Being simultaneously the director of the Institute of Chemistry of the Bashkir Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1968-1977), Sagid Raufovich became one of the founders of the scientific school of polymer chemistry in Bashkortostan.

The recognition of Sagid Raufovich merits for the chemical science of the country is his election in 1970 as a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Deputy of the Supreme Council of the Bashkir ASSR (1967-1969), Deputy and Secretary of the Standing Committee on Science and Technology of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the three convocations (1970-1985) .

His scientific, public and administrative activities were marked by many awards of the country, including the orders of the USSR Council of Ministers in the field of science and technology (1983), Orrder of the name of S.V. Lebedev Academy of Sciences (1992, posthumously), Orders of the Red Banner of Labor (1975), Friendship of People (1982), many USSR medals, diplomas and medals of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements.

During years 1968-1988 Academician of the NAS RK B.A. Zhubanov was the director of the Institute.

A special place in the scientific research of academician B.A. Zhubanov was in the development of the synthesis of cyclic trisyclodecentratecarboxylic acid dianhydride, the so-called benzene adduct, and the reaction of benzene and maleic anhydride under UV radiation. A detailed study of the features and laws of the process of benzene, its alkyl, halogen, aryl substituted, furan with maleic anhydride and its dichloro derivatives, has resulted in more than 40 new monomers. Based on the synthesized monomers, the method of single- and two-step polycondensation with various diamines in polar aprotic solvents of the amide type produced alicyclic polyimides, from which heat-resistant fibers, films, varnishes, paints and enamel wires are made. Thanks to the initiative of B. A. Zhubanov, research began on the high-temperature method for the synthesis of high-molecular soluble polyimides by the catalytic reaction of polyacylation of diamines by dicyrides of alicyclic tetracarboxylic acids and by the intramolecular cyclization of amido-acid fragments flowing in one volume in the prolitolite that flow into one volume in the prolitolite in the same volume in the protolith. In studies of the role of solvents in the synthesis of polyheterocycles, a new interpretation of the mechanism of growth of polycondensation chains, the so-called associative polycondensation, was formulated and substantiated. In the study of the acylation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, a new reaction was discovered: acylation with dehydrogenation condensation, in relation to which the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction is a special case that occurs when the acylation complex is reduced. B.A. Zhubanov led the work on the combustion of high-molecular compounds, which led to the development of flame retardant foaming coatings for use in various fields of engineering and industry, for the protection of wood, metal and rubber products. For the first time in Kazakhstan B.A. Zhubanov began research on the creation of polymers with biocompatible and therapeutic functions. A number of fundamentally new macromolecular therapeutic systems with anti-tuberculosis, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, analgesic activity, etc. were obtained. A new original drug of long-acting antihypertensive action “Clofebucal” was created, which successfully passed clinical trials, as well as the polymer composition “Pilovit”, which allows for complex treatment of glaucoma. The same series of studies includes the creation of polymeric forms of plant growth regulators based on copolymers of maleic anhydride and akpinol, fospinol and other mono- and bipiperidols, which have a prolonged growth-promoting effect on a number of vegetable and grassland crops, cotton.

For his contribution to the polymer science B.A. Zhubanov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1976), the Order of the October Revolution (1986), commemorative medals and awards.

Being at the origins of the creation of the department of chemistry of high-molecular compounds of the Kazakh National University (head of the department in 1963-1969), he was the permanent professor of this department. For many years, he taught a course on “High Molecular Weight Compounds,” a number of special courses in polymer chemistry for undergraduate and graduate students. Bulat Akhmetovich made a decisive contribution to the formulation of the educational process of the department, the development of programs of lecture courses, the creation of general and special workshops. B.A. Zhubanov played a large role in the scientific development of the department, because he understood that the success of the educational process is largely determined by the level of research.

During the period of work as the director of the Institute of Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR B.А. Zhubanov following laboratories were present in the structure of the Institute:

  • organic catalysis (Head: from 1946 to 1969 – academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, D.V. Sokolsky);
  • physical chemistry (Head: from 1949 to 1986 – doctor of chemical sciences, professor T. N. Sumarokova);
  • organic synthesis (Heads: from 1955 to 1981 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, DV Sokolov; from 1981 to 1993, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor Yu.G. Bosyakov);
  • plant Chemistry (Head: from 1955 to 1981 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, M.I. Goryayev; Acting Head: from 1981 to 1982 – Ph.D. in Chemical Sciences, F.S. Sharipova; Head: 1982 to 1993. – Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor G.G. Nikonov);
  • chemistry of alkaloids (Heads: from 1960 to 1968 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor G.A. Tolstikov; from 1969 to 1971. – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor M.P. Irismetov, in 1971 the laboratory became part of chemistry laboratories of natural compounds);
  • molecular spectroscopy (head: from 1956 to 1972 – Yu.A. Kushnikov, in 1972 the laboratory of molecular spectroscopy and a group of physical methods were combined into a laboratory of physical research methods);
  • plastics (head: from 1956 to 1986 – VG Gutsalyuk);
  • hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials (Heads: from 1959 to 1980 – Ph.D. in Chemical Sciences M.G. Pugachev; from 1980 to 1986 – Ph.D. in Chemical Sciences G.ZH. Ibraev, later based on the laboratory in 1982 at the Directorate a group of chemical enzymology was organized, which in 1985 was reorganized into the laboratory of bioorganic chemistry, in 1992 the laboratory of bioorganic chemistry was incorporated into the laboratory of physical chemistry);
  • microanalysis (Heads: from 1961 to 1979 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences V.S. Bazalitskaya, in 1979 the microanalysis laboratory was transformed into a group and attached to the laboratory of physical chemistry of polymers; from 1979 to 1986 – NN Alekseeva, in 1986 a group of microanalysis was attached to the laboratory of organic synthesis);
  • natural salts (Heads: from 1956 to 1973 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences AI Moon; from 1973 to 1975 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences RE Zhaimina; from 1975 to 1983 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences N. A. Karazhanov, in 1995 the laboratory was merged with the laboratory of chemistry of phosphate fertilizers);
  • natural sorbents and catalysts (Head: from 1961 to 1996 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR Sh.B. Battalova);
  • amalgam chemistry (Heads: from 1961 to 1969 – L.F. Kozin; from 1969 to 1991 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor S.P. Buchman);
  • synthesis of semi-products of high-molecular compounds (Head: from 1957 to 1996 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, B.V. Suvorov);
  • synthesis of herbicides (Head: from 1964 to 1973 – Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR I.N. Azerbaev);
  • physical chemistry of oxide melts (Head: from 1965 to 1988 – Candidate of Technical Sciences L.N. Sheludyakov);
  • inorganic synthesis (Heads: from 1966 to 1984 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, A.B. Bekturov; from 1986 to 1996 – A.I. Dzhurumbayev);
  • physical chemistry of polymers (Head: from 1966 to 1996 – academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, E.A. Bekturov);
  • polymer synthesis (Head: from 1968 to 2009 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, B.A. Zhubanov);
  • ion exchange resins (Head: from 1968 to the present – Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Ergozhin);
  • Electrochemistry (Head: until 1969 – G.Z. Kiryakov);
  • chemistry of phosphate fertilizers (head: from 1966 to 1972 – Candidate of Technical Sciences V.V. Tikhonov);
  • polymerization processes (head: from 1971 to 1983 – N.D. Zavorokhin, in 1984 the laboratory was disbanded, and its employees were transferred to the laboratory of polymer synthesis);
  • physical research methods (head: from 1972 to 1997. – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor V. A. Agashkin);
  • chemistry of acetylene (heads: from 1973 to 1975 – corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR I.N. Azerbaev; from 1977 to 1986 – candidate of chemical sciences BD Abiyurov; from 1986 to 1995 – candidate of chemical sciences BM Butin, in 1995 the laboratory became part of the laboratory of chemistry of physiologically active compounds);
  • chemical-analytical group (Heads: from 1976 to 1978 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences LI Pleskach, from 1978 to 1979 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences KG Kuvatov);
  • chemistry of phosphorus (Heads: from 1978 to 1986 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences SI Kalmykov; from 1986 to 1992 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor V.A. Sinyaev, in 1992 the division was renamed the Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry compounds and materials, later laboratory of chemistry of inorganic materials);
  • chemical enzymology group (head: from 1982 to 1985 – G.K. Nikonov, in 1985 was reorganized into the laboratory of bioorganic chemistry, in 1992 the laboratory of bioorganic chemistry was incorporated into the laboratory of physical chemistry);
  • laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry (Head: from 1985 to 1993 – P.P. Gladyshev);
  • synthesis of monomers (Head: from 1972 to 2009 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor D.Kh. Sembayev, since 1996 – Laboratory of Petrochemical Synthesis).

From 1988 to 2007, from April 2009 to the present, the Director, President and General Director of the Institute is E.E. Ergozhin.

E.E. Ergozhin took leadership of the Institute in difficult times. These were the years of widespread recession of the country’s economy, period of collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of independent states.

The scientific structure of the Institute was represented by the following laboratories:

synthesis of semi-products of high-molecular compounds (Heads: from 1957 to 1996 – academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR B.V. Suvorov, in 1996 the laboratory for the synthesis of semi-products of high-molecular compounds was renamed the laboratory of petrochemical synthesis; from 1996 to 2009 – academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan .H. Sembaev);
natural sorbents and catalysts (in 1960, the laboratory of natural sorbents and catalysts separated from the laboratory of organic catalysis, Head: from 1961 to 1996 – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR Sh.B. Battalov; in 1996, this laboratory was attached to the laboratory of petrochemical synthesis; in 2001, a laboratory of chemistry of oil and gas was established on the basis of the laboratory of natural sorbents and catalysts, first as a scientific group at the Directorate, which in 2003 was transformed into a laboratory. Head: from 2001 to 2009 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor S. R. Konuspaev, In 2009, as a result of the merger of the laboratory of petrochemical synthesis and the laboratory of chemistry of oil and gas, the laboratory of chemistry of oil and petrochemical synthesis was organized. Heads: from 2009 to 2011 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor P.B. Vorobyev, from 2012 to present days – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor K.A. Kadirbekov);
physical chemistry of polymers (Head: from 1966 to 1996 – corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, E.A. Bekturov);
polymer synthesis (Head: from 1968 to 2009 – academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, B.A. Zhubanov, in 2009, after merging the laboratory of physical chemistry of polymers and polymer synthesis, it was renamed the laboratory of synthesis and physical chemistry of polymers; Head: from 2009 to present days – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor M. B. Umerzakova);
ion exchange resins (Head: from 1968 to the present – Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Yergozhin);
synthesis of monomers, subsequently petrochemical synthesis (Head: from 1972 to 2010 – Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, D.Kh. Sembayev);
chemistry of phosphate fertilizers (Heads: from 1972 to 1994 – D.Z. Serazetdinov; from 1994 to the present – Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Chemistry, Professor U.Z. Dzhusipbekov, in 2003 this laboratory was renamed the laboratory of chemistry of fertilizers and salts);
physical research methods (Heads: from 1972 to 1997 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor V.A. Agashkin; From 1997 to 2003 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor V.A. Solomin; from 2004 to 2012.- Doctor of Chemical Sciences K.M. Beketov, in 2009 laboratory was renamed the Laboratory of Physico-Chemical Methods of Analysis and Ecology. Heads: from 2012 to 2017 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor K.I. Imanbekov, from 2017 to the present – Candidate of Technical Sciences E.A. Tusupkaliev);
studies of physicomechanical properties of polymers (Head: from 1973 to 1992 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor J.-J. Bayarstanov);
chemistry of rare elements (in 1973 a laboratory was organized in the structure of the department of inorganic and physical chemistry. Head: from 1973 to 1993. – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor A.K. Ilyasova. Later it was renamed the Laboratory of Inorganic Polyoxo Compounds, in 1992 it joined the laboratory of ecology of inorganic production);
synthesis of herbicides, subsequently physiologically active compounds (Heads: from 1973 to 2019 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor K. B. Erzhanov; from 2019 to the present – Candidate of Chemical Sciences M. S. Mukanov);
analytical and amalgam chemistry (Heads: from 1969 to 1991 – doctor of chemical sciences, professor S.P. Bukhman, in 1993 the laboratory was renamed the laboratory of analytical chemistry; Head from 1992 to 2010 – doctor of technical sciences, associate professor A . S. Musina);
chemistry of phosphorus (Head: from 1986 to 1992 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor V.A. Sinyaev, in 1992 the division was renamed the Laboratory of Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds and Materials);
chemistry of acetylene (Head: from 1986 to 1995 – B.M. Butin);
Plant Chemistry (Heads: from 1982 to 1993 – Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor G.G. Nikonov; from 1993 to 1994 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor K.D. Praliev; from 1994 to 2009 it was called the Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Compounds. Head from 1994 to 2009 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor B.Zh. Dzhiembaev);
chemical technologies of polymeric materials (Head: from 1986 to 1991 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences R.T. Kutzhanov. Later it was renamed the laboratory of heterochain polymers, in 1991 was headed by Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor O.A. Almabekov, Due to the reorganization of this laboratory in 1992, its employees were transferred to the polymer synthesis laboratory);
bioorganic chemistry (Head: 1985 to 1993 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor P.P. Gladyshev);
Physical Chemistry (Heads: from 1986 to 1991 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor R.A. Slavinskaya; in 1993, laboratories of bioorganic chemistry and physical chemistry of polymers were included in the laboratory of physical chemistry, with the united laboratory of physical chemistry, from 1993 to 1997 it was headed by Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, E.A. Bekturov, from 1997 to 2009 – by Doctor of Chemistry, Professor T.K. Dzhumadilov);
plastics (Head: from 1986 to 1992 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor I.A. Arkhipova);
inorganic synthesis (Heads: from 1986 to 1996 – Candidate of Technical Sciences A.I. Dzhurumbayev; from 1997 to 2001. – Candidate of Technical Sciences Z.K. Kaipova (later Doctor of Technical Sciences), Candidate of Technical Sciences A.V. Nevsky and Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Yu.A. Markonrenkov, from 2001 to 2006 – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor K.T. Arynov and Doctor of Chemical Sciences A.T. Sadyrova, from 2006 to 2017 – Doctor of Technical Sciences , Professor S. Usmanov; from 2018 to the present – Candidate of Technical Sciences G. T. Omarova);
The Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds group (Heads: from 1997 to 2003 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences A.S. Seriev; from 2005 to 2006 – Candidate of Chemical Sciences B.S. Balapanov; in 2007, the scientific group was renamed the laboratory of chemistry of inorganic heteropolyoxocompounds, from 2006 to 2009 – doctor of technical sciences V.I. Kapralova, in 2009 the laboratory was merged with the laboratory of chemistry of fertilizers and salts);
physical chemistry of oxide melts (Head: from 1988 to 1992 – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Yu.A. Markonrenkov);
fire-resistant polymeric materials (the laboratory was established on the basis of the polymer synthesis laboratory in 1980, head: from 1980 to 1997 – doctor of chemical sciences, professor K.M. Gibov);
organic synthesis (heads: from 1981 to 1993 – Doctor of Chemistry, Professor Yu.G. Bosyakov; from 1994 to the present – Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan K.D. Praliev. In 2009 the merger with the chemistry of natural compounds laboratory took place and the laboratory was renamed the laboratory of chemistry of synthetic and medicinal substances);
Chemistry of inorganic compounds and materials (Head: from 1992 to 2009 – Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor V.A. Sinyaev);
chemical ecology of inorganic production (Head: from 1992 to 1993 – doctor of technical sciences, professor K.T. Arynov. In 1995 the laboratory became part of the laboratory of inorganic synthesis).

In 1992, in due to the enlargement of the subject of scientific research by the decision of the Scientific Council of the Institute, the laboratories of heterochain polymers, studies of the physicomechanical properties of polymers, plastics, polymer physical chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, phosphorus chemistry, physical chemistry of oxide melts, and inorganic polyoxo compounds were reorganized.

Under the leadership of academician E.E. Ergozhin the institute created original methods for controlling the permeability of ion exchangers of spatial structure and selectivity with respect to complex metal ions and organic compounds (antibiotics, dyes, toxins, etc.). The use of divinyl compounds, diepoxy, dichloromethyl, and disulfonchloride derivatives with a varying distance between multiple bonds and functional groups as crosslinking agents made it possible to synthesize highly permeable sulfo and phosphoric acid cation exchangers, anion exchangers of different basicity, amphoteric ion exchangers, and ion exchange exchangers with improved kinetics patterns, a series of monovinyl monomers with some N, N’-arylenedimethacrylamides, N, N’-alkylenedimethacrylamides, d methacrylic esters of diols or diizopropilproduced aromatic hydrocarbons. Laws governing the formation of ion exchangers, redox polymers have been studied, and a number of features of the polymer analogous transformations of linear, gel, macroporous, and macrocellular copolymers of styrene with dienes have been established in comparison with model compounds. It has been established that the presence of -O-, -S-, -SO-, -SO2-, -N = N, -NHNH- and other groups alternating with aromatic and aliphatic units in the structure of ion-exchange polymers allows the flexibility of the matrix to be adjusted and improved it’s complexing ability.

Systematic studies have been carried out to study the patterns of formation of macro-chained polyfunctional anion exchangers based on oligomers of epichlorohydrin, its copolymers with styrene and their chloromethyl derivatives in the presence of polyethylene polyamine, polyethylene imine, polyxylylene polyamine, ethylene and hexamethylene diamine. The features of the interaction of di-, tri-, and tetraglycidyl derivatives of certain dioxybenzenes, aminophenols, and aromatic diamines with poly – 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine, di-, and polyamines have been studied. As a result of the research, it was possible to establish optimal conditions for the synthesis of ion exchangers and to increase their sorption capacity by 2.0-2.5 times as compared with the known industrial anion exchangers (EDE-10P and AN-31). The synthesized ion exchangers have a high exchange capacity (8-10 mg-eq / g), chemical and thermal resistance. Anion exchangers based on oligomers, copolymers and chloromethylated copolymer of epichlorohydrin with styrene are used to clean galvanoprocess wastewater from copper and nickel ions.

Methods for the synthesis of thermostable, chemically stable anion exchangers based on epoxy derivatives of tetraphenylcyclotetrasiloxanatetrol, phenyltriacetoxy sisilane or chloromethyl derivatives of phenyltrichlorosilane, phenyl-tris (2,3-dichloropropoxy) silane have been developed with the above di- and polyamines and their physicochemical properties and sorption capacity with respect to platinum, palladium, osmium, and rhenium ions were studied.

E.E. Yergozhin and his students made a significant contribution to the development of modern chemistry of ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane technology. The cycle of original research completed the development of ways to obtain new heterogeneous, homogeneous, interpolymer and bipolar ion-exchange membranes with improved physico-mechanical and electrochemical characteristics. Comparative studies of the properties of the synthesized cationic and anion-exchange membranes by various physicochemical methods have been carried out and it has been established that the obtained cation-exchange membranes are more selective and have electrical conductivity in sulfate solutions of copper and nickel than industrial membranes MK-40.

E.E. Yergozhin was awarded the Diploma of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR (1971), is listed in the Golden Book of Honor of Kazakhstan (1976), awarded medal named after. S.I. Vavilov (1991), Al-Khorezmi Gold Medal and Diploma (Tehran, Iran, 1995), with the award being presented by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. He is the first Laureate of the independent international prize of the club of patrons “Platinum Tarlan – 2000”, the “Altyn Adam – Man of the Year 2000” award. For a great contribution to the development of science and education, training of young scientists and specialists, the adaptation of the chemical science of Kazakhstan to market conditions and access to the world stage by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev he was thanked and awarded the Golden Leopard badge (2001), was awarded the Gold Medal “For Contribution to Science and Scientific Partnership” of the Russian Academy of State Service under the President of the Russian Federation (2002), the Order of Parasat (2003). He was awarded the Honorary title “Marshal of Science of France” and was awarded the Napoleon Medal of the Association of Industrial Assistance (France, 2003), the Medal of the Republic of Kazakhstan for active participation in the implementation of the Russian-Kazakhstan program “Assessing the impact of rocket bearer launches from the Baikonur cosmodrome on the natural area around it” of the Federation of Cosmonautics of Russia, awarded a medal named after S.P. Korolev (2006). Awarded the Gold Medal named after Sultanmakhmut Toraygyrov (2011). His name is included in the 2011 reference book “Who is who in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.

Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Yergozhin, by the decision of the Socratic Committee of the Oxford Summit of World Scientists (Great Britain, December 10-13, 2011), was awarded the International Prize in Scientific Research and was awarded the title of honor “The Name in Science”, his name is included in the World Register of Outstanding World Scientists and awarded the medal of glory “For contribution to world science.”

As a result of nationwide voting via the Internet and SMS messages, he scored 26,538 votes and became the winner of the first Republican contest in 2012 “El Tulgasy” – “Name of the Motherland” in the “Science” nomination, dedicated to the 20th anniversary of independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Awarded the medal named after “M.V. Lomonosov for merits 300 years since the birth” (2012), the Gold Medal of the Eurasian Patent Office named after V.I. Blinnikov “For his contribution to the invention and patent business” (2013), the Order of “Glory of Kazakhstan” (2013), the medal “For his contribution to road science” (2015).

For active participation in the organization and conduct of the election of the President of the country in April 2015, he was thanked by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev.

Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan E.E. Yergozhin was the Scientific Secretary of the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR “Chemistry of Polymers” (1965-1973), the organizer and first Chairman of the Council of Young Scientists of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, and Head of the Council of Young Scientists under the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Kazakhstan (1968-1973), member of the Frunze District Committee Bureau Komsomol of Kazakhstan Alma-Ata (1971-1973), deputy of the Kalininsky District Council of People’s Deputies of Alma-Ata and Chairman of the Standing Committee on Youth Affairs (1985-1987), deputy and Chairman of the Standing Committee on Science and Technology of the Supreme Council Zhetsk SSR (1986-1990), responsible scientist – secretary of the organizing committee of the XI Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry (Alma-Ata, 1975). HER. Yergozhin was thanked by the Presidiums of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR for their active participation in organizing and holding this congress. He was a delegate to the XI Congress of the Knowledge Society of the Kazakh SSR (1987), elected a member of the board and the Presidium of the Society, a delegate to the IX Congress of the All-Union Society Knowledge (Moscow, 1987), Vice-Chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the UNESCO Regional Educational and Scientific Workshop (1987), co-chairman of the organizing committee of the I International School-Seminar of Young Scientists “Non-traditional Polymer Synthesis Methods” (Alma-Ata, 1990), member of the National Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan for UNESCO (Resolution of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 15 and Julia 1994 No. 794), Chairman of the Science Fund of the Ministry of Science and New Technologies, Ministry of Science – Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1994-2000), Deputy Chairman of the Commission on State Prizes of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of science, technology and Education under the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1998), the chairman of the organizing committees of the international scientific conference with the participation of the Nobel Prize winners “Science of the Third Millennium” (Astana-Almaty, 2000) and the international scientific conference dedicated to the 1500th anniversary of Turkestan (2000).

He was elected Academician of the New York Academy of Sciences of the USA (1994), Honorary Professor of the Zhetysu State University named after I. Zhansugurov (2001), Pavlodar State University named after S. Toraigyrov (2001), Honorary Professor of the International University of Vienna (2008), a member American Chemical Society (2008), Almaty National Pedagogical University named after Abai (2011), Karaganda State University named after Ye.A. Buketov (2011).

E.E. Yergozhin is an honorary citizen of Yeskeldy district (2006) and Almaty region (2007).